The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.
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The entrance hall modelled on a castle gate was finished in 1899.
Berlin-Grunewald was connected to the S-Bahn network on 11 June 1928.
Taking advantage of the zonal border between occupied zones in Germany, the number of GDR citizens moving to West Germany totaled 187,000 in 1950; 165,000 in 1951; 182,000 in 1952; and 331,000 in 1953.
The restrictions presented a quandary for some Eastern Bloc states, which had been more economically advanced and open than the Soviet Union, such that crossing borders seemed more natural—especially where no prior border existed between East and West Germany.
The major task of the ruling communist party in the Soviet zone was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties, which in turn would be presented as internal measures.
Indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism became a compulsory part of school curricula, sending professors and students fleeing to the West.
Constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off (by land) West Berlin from virtually all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989.
accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses.
GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: ), by implication equating the NATO countries (and West Germany in particular) with fascists.
The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.
The Germans will guard the line of defence with their lives." Consequently, the inner German border between the two German states was closed, and a barbed-wire fence erected.