The process of permineralization, where mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms, provides us with a vast quantity of fossils that give us an idea of the different forms life has taken in the past.You will never find a Neanderthal bone in the same stratum as a Tyrannosaurus rex bone.” The shells were deposited in layers on the Ocean floor over millions of years, layers that would be violently broken up and rippled into a mountain range 480,000,000 years ago by a catastrophic earthquake.
Take a quantity of uranium-238 and in 4.5 billion years half of it will have turned into lead-206.
When molten rock hardens into a solid, the uranium-238 within it begins to decay.
Mutations that give an organism a survival and reproductive advantage will be more likely to show up in offspring.
Genes that code for proteins are composed of three-nucleotides (U/T, A, G, or C).
In 1952 Stanley Miller and Harold Urey synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors found in the Earth’s original atmosphere, producing more than 20 different amino acids using electrical sparks to simulate lightning.
Speciation is the process by which new species are formed.
Plants take in carbon from the atmosphere and ocean and fix it into themselves.
Animals eat plants and fix the carbon into themselves.
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